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Solar energy

Solar energy is unlimited, available worldwide, emits no greenhouse gases (GHG), consumes little or no water, does not generate any noise during its production, requires minimal maintenance, reduces dependence on energy imports and improves the security of energy supply and stabilizes the cost of electricity generation in the long term.

Solar energy

Decentralization of electricity production

Photovoltaic installations are generally divided into two main categories :

• Large scale installations
> injection of all electricity production into the network.
> more economical due to its scale.

• Commercial and residential installations
> integrated into roofs, car parks or the facade of buildings.
> the energy produced can be consumed locally or sold to the grid.

We can see the increase in production :

Production curve

The rise of self-consumption

Rise in Photovoltaic electricity can be consumed in two different ways:

• Export to the network
> Previously very common practice.
> Declining with lower feed-in tariffs.

• Self-consumption
> Becomes more profitable.
> More accessible thanks to favorable policies.
> With network re-injection possible or prohibited.

Photovoltaic electricity curve

In France

PV self-consumption in France:

• Constantly growing since 2017.
• Establishment of incentive bonuses aimed at developing the self-consumption model.

RT 2020: any new building must be consumption neutral and produce as much energy as it consumes. This program consists of:
• apply strong energy efficiency measures.
• produce renewable energy locally.

Standards and regulations

International standards

> IEC 60364 Electrical installations in buildings.

Requirements for PV installations:

7-712 Requirements for special facilities or locations: Photovoltaic (PV) electricity supply systems.

551.7 Additional requirements when the generator set can operate in parallel with other sources including the electrical distribution network.

Requirements for the integration of PV installations in buildings:
8-2 Electrical installations for prosumers (available soon).

Regulations in France

The installation of photovoltaic equipment must be done in accordance with the requirements of:
• NF C 15-100 Low voltage electrical installations.
• Guide UTE C 15-712-1 when the PV installation is without a storage device and connected to the public network.
• Guide UTE C 15-712-2 when the PV installation is autonomous not connected to the public network and with battery storage device;
• Experimental standard XP C 15-712-3 when the PV installation is with a storage device and connected to the public network.
• Energy code: adaptation at European Union level.

Impact of self-consumption

Self-consumption modifies the electrical installation.

Classic electrical installation, single source:

Several sources and multiple modes of exploitation :

Three types of installations for self-consumption

Self-consumption installation “connected to the network” – What is changing?

• Design / Architecture of the electrical installation

• Calculation of the electrical installation :

  • The calculation must be done for each operating mode.
  • Storage doubles the operating modes (can be source or load).
  • PV & Storage: to be considered in the calculation of short-circuit currents as a current source.
    -….

• Sizing:

  • The sizing of the equipment must be done in relation to the worst constraints.
  • Protective equipment: placement, selectivity and sizing for PV production.
    -… ..

• Energy quality:

  • Harmonics & Continuous components.

Self-consumption installation “connected to the network” – What is changing?

• More complex monitoring:

  • Monitor the power consumed and the power produced.
  • Monitor performance indicators, eg. self-consumption rate, self-production rate.
  • Optimize the management of sources.
  • Monitor the condition of the equipment, ensure that production is optimal.

• Need for control functions:

  • Limit the power produced.
  • Improve the power factor.
  • Manage the operation of loads to optimize the rate of self-consumption.

Self-consumption electrical architectures

Application :
• Significant photovoltaic production.
• New buildings or those existing where the PV array is near the TGBT.
• Intended for self-consumption with or without resale of excess PV production.

Advantages disadvantages :
• Optimized architecture.
• Simplified maintenance.

Example: the Morbihan energies project

Self-consumption electrical architectures

Architecture: connection to a switchboard

Application :
• Small scale PV installations (PV electricity production does not exceed base load).
• Existing buildings, especially multi-storey buildings.

Advantages disadvantages :
• Simplified installation and optimized in terms of costs.
• More complicated maintenance due to the fact that the sources are dispersed.
• Limited scalability.

Example: the HIVE project

Architecture: connection to a switchboard

Architecture: connection upstream of the main switchboard

Application :
• Large-scale PV installations (the electrical capacity of the PV installation is greater than that available in the building).
• Existing buildings.
• Intended for self-consumption with or without resale of excess PV production.

Advantages disadvantages :
• Allows to keep the existing infrastructure.

Example: the LGbyG project

connection upstream of the main switchboard

Examples of customer projects by Schneider Electric

Morbihan Energies

  • Location: Morbihan, France.
  • Type: administrative building.
  • Completed: 2014.

Consumption:
• 30 to 40 kW
Local production:
• PV: 126 kWp – 850 m².
• Wind turbines: 2 kW and 2.5 kW.
• Storage: 56 kWh Li Ion.

HIVE

  • Location: Paris, France.
  • Type: administrative building with five floors.
  • Completed: 2016.

Consumption:
• 50 kW / m² / year
• Base load: 300 kWp
Local production:
• PV: 270 kWp

LGbyG Microgrid of IMT campus

  • Location: Grenoble, France.
  • Type: campus, 7 buildings.
  • Completed: March 2018.

PV production:
• B2: 90 kWp.
• B5: 50 kWp.
• B4: 146 kWp.
• B6: 32 kWp (17 kWp already installed).

Co-generation:
• B4: 70 kW of electrical energy + 114 kW of thermal energy.

Storage:
• B2: 100 kWh.
• B4 / B6: 100 kWh.

Schneider Electric solutions for self-consumption

Generic architecture
Adaptable to all categories of markets.

Schneider Electric capabilities

Engineering expertise, from network to cloud.

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